Advances in Social Sciences and Management <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences and Management (ASSM)</strong> is an open access and peer-reviewed international journal published on monthly bases. Our journal aims to provide a platform for scholars and practitioners to share their innovative ideas, methods, and findings in the field of social sciences. In this edition, we have assembled a diverse collection of research articles that cover a broad range of topics within the social sciences. Our contributors come from different parts of the world, and their research draws on a range of theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches. We hope that our readers will find these articles informative and thought-provoking.</p> Headstart Publishing - United Kingdom en-US Advances in Social Sciences and Management Liberian Multi-party Democracy: Multi-ethnic Governance Experience in Historical Perspective <p>Present day Liberia at pre-colonial era, was peopled originally by many indigenous, ethnic groups comprising the Bassa, Belle, Dan (Gio), Dei, Gbandi, Gola, Grebo, Kissi (Gizzi), Kpelle, Krahn, Kru, Lorma, Mah (Mano), Mandingo, Mende, and Vai, with the Gbi and Sapo tribes omitted from historical records for reasons not specified. These tribes had their own unique cultural conventions that kept them together. For example, music and dance had key roles in “uncontaminated” African Society, as they were ever present at birth, initiation, marriage, and death as well as appearing at the time of recreation (Rodney, 2005).</p> Leeway Dave Karngbeae Copyright (c) 2023 Leeway Dave Karngbeae 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 1 11 01 17 Effectiveness of Solutions on Soilless Production of Lettuce Grown in Makurdi and Plateau, Nigeria <p>The experiment aimed to investigate the effectiveness of solutions on the growth and yield of lettuce grown in Makurdi and Plateau, Nigeria. The experiment is laid in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments used are organic nutrient source, inorganic nutrients source and control, a varieties used where (Loose-leaf and Butter-head). During the investigation, some physiological variables, such as growth, plant height and the number of leaves, leaves diameter were measured. Other characteristics like dry weight, plant girth weight, root length, fresh weight and overall yield were also recorded. The results of the investigation revealed that lettuce generally responded to nutrient solution. All the parameter studies have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) responded to the nutrient solutions with inorganic nutrients solutions recorded higher in both growth and yield-related character such, as plant height (10.00cm), the number of leaves(20.05), dry weight (10.17g), girth weight (48.22g) and yield (30.10kg/ha). On varieties Loose-leaf out performed Butter-head in both growth, yield and yield related characters such as plant height (9.45cm), the number of leaves (20.20), dry weight (10.92g), girth weight (32.27g), root weight (18.27g), fresh weight (42.27g) and yield (14.92kg/ha) and Jos location was&nbsp; superior in both growth and yield related characters. Based on the results obtained it can be suggested that lettuce farmers use inorganic nutrient solution which is better in both growth and yield characteristics leading to optimum yield in lettuce cultivation in the study areas.</p> P. Madina B. K. Akinyemi Copyright (c) 2023 Madina, P., Akinyemi, B. K. 2023-11-16 2023-11-16 1 11 18 24 Essays on the History of Bozatau District <p>The Republic of Karakalpakstan is located in the northwestern part of Uzbekistan, in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya, on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. The republic is bounded on the south-west by the Karakum Desert. To the northwest lies the Ustyurt Plato, and to the northeast lies the Kyzylkum Desert. The southern part of the Aral Sea is located on Karakalpak soil. The total land area of ​​Karakalpakstan is 166.6 thousand square kilometers, which is the largest among the regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Today the population of the republic is more than 1,881.9 thousand people.</p> Ametov Temirbek Almasbaevich Utemuratov Baxram Bekmuratovich Copyright (c) 2023 Ametov Temirbek Almasbaevich, Utemuratov Baxram Bekmuratovich 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 11 52 57 Symbiosis Dam with Nature <p>This paper is concerned with symbiosis dam with nature, which is very useful for the ecology including human beings. A proposal has been made about the concept and design principle for symbiosis dam with nature, by referring to the Kasumiga-ike pond in the Kenroku-en garden in Japan, and the Kanan-taishu water channel network in Taiwan. It is found that the necessary conditions for symbiosis dam with nature are (a) to avoid any construction of dam, which may stop the continual water flow and motion of sediment along the primary river in the basin, and (b) to limit the number of dams only to one in the tributary river.</p> Takeo R.M. Nakagawa Copyright (c) 2023 Takeo R.M. Nakagawa 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 11 58 73