Global Research in Environment and Sustainability <p><strong><em>Global Research in Environment and Sustainability (GRES)</em></strong> is an open access and peer-reviewed international journal. Environmental sustainability has become an increasingly important topic in today's world as the impacts of climate change and human activities on the planet continue to grow. Research in this area focuses on identifying solutions to mitigate these impacts and promote sustainable practices. From renewable energy and waste reduction to conservation and ecosystem management, environmental sustainability research is critical for the preservation of the natural world and the well-being of future generations. This research is multidisciplinary, involving scientists, policymakers, and the general public in the pursuit of a sustainable future.</p> Headstart Publishing - United Kingdom en-US Global Research in Environment and Sustainability Physicochemical and Bacteriological Assessment of Drinking Water Dources in Achusa Community Benue State, Nigeria <p>This study was aimed at determining the physicochemical and bacteriological properties of hand dug wells and boreholes in Achusa community, Benue State, Nigeria. For this study a total of 16 water samples were collected from 4 Boreholes, 4 brands of sachet water commonly consumed within the locality, and 4 hand dug wells. The analyses for 13 physicochemical parameters were carried out in the laboratory using the PalinTest water test instructions manual on photometer method, 2014 while bacteriological assessment of the samples was carried out using the membrane filtration method and the results compared with World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) guideline values. Results showed that Most of the physicochemical parameters were in compliance to the WHO/NSDWQ guideline values especially from the sachet water samples. However, some borehole samples were above the given standard value which included iron with mean values of 0.32mg/l, 0.35mg/l, and 0.41mg/l. &nbsp;Well samples with higher mean values included turbidity 6.0mg/l, 39.85mg/l, chloride 327.50mg/l and nitrite 2.07mg/l. Bacteriological properties of the sachet water samples were also in compliance with the compared standard values. Total viable counts above WHO/NSDWQ standard values were obtained from well samples with values of 128cfu/100ml and 131cfu/100ml. total coliform count in borehole samples included 12cfu/100ml and 15cfu/100ml while in well samples were both 20cfu/100ml. however it was interesting to note that a particular well sample had no TVC or TCC or E.coli count present. Bacteria isolates of pathogenic importance isolated in this study were E. coli, Faecal streptococcus, Salmonella species, Pseudomonas species, Bacillus species and Vibro cholerae. Based on these results the boreholes and sachet water sources were found to be better for drinking than the well water sources.</p> Rita Eluma Ekejiuba Okwoli Amali Steven Sule Copyright (c) 2023 Rita Eluma Ekejiuba, Okwoli Amali, Steven Sule 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 1 9 01 11 Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contents in the Leaves, Stem and Rhizospher Soil of Selected Medicinal Plants Growing in Selected Polluted Sites in Makurdi-Nigeria <p>The study assessed the concentration of Lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn) and Cadmium (Cd) in selected medicinal plants, Azadirachta indica and Phyllanthus niruri; the rhizosphere soil in mechanic and dump sites on which the plants were growingAnalysis of selected heavy metals was done using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) machine. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at a probability level of 0.05. &nbsp;From the results, it was shown that, Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu and Mn were generally higher in the rhizosphere soil and leaves than in the stems of the medicinal plants (A.indica and P.niruri). P.niruri accumulated more of the heavy metals than A.indica. There were significant differences in heavy, metals concentrations among the leaves, stems of the medicinal plants and rhizosphere soil at P≤0.05. Heavy metals concentrations in sampled plants in the polluted sites were higher than those of the control sites and were statistically significant (P≤0.05). Comparing with WHO standard, the heavy metals investigated where within the acceptable set limits. However, their presence in the investigated plants calls for concern as accumulation over time may increase the level of these metals above set limits. Based on the findings, the study recommended that medicinal plants for therapeutic use should be obtained away from polluted environments and that sorting and recycling of wastes should be intensified to reduce the quantity of these toxic metals in the dumpsites which can subsequently be leached into the soil where they could be taken up by plants.</p> D.G. Kever C.C. Iheukwumere N. G. Imandeh Copyright (c) 2023 D.G. Kever, Iheukwumere, C.C., Imandeh, N.G. 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 1 9 12 22 Innovative Approaches to Enhancing Food Security: Saline Water Kitchen Gardening <p>Food security, a critical global concern, hinges on our ability to sustainably produce nutritious food in the face of mounting challenges such as climate change, water scarcity, and soil degradation. This study investigates how saline water affects the initial growth and adaptability of vegetable crops in a Kitchen Gardening Model designed for saline environments. Chili peppers demonstrated the highest germination rate at 90%, followed by tomatoes at 85%, and eggplants at 82%, while okra had the lowest rate at 75%. Adaptability of seedlings varied with salinity levels; the initial irrigation with a TDS of 700 resulted in 81% adaptation, while the fourth irrigation with 2250 TDS had 65% adaptation. Chili peppers exhibited the highest overall adaptability at 76%, followed by tomatoes at 74% and eggplants at 72%, with okra having the lowest adaptability at 9%. Plant height ranged from a maximum of 32 cm (okra) to a minimum of 23 cm (tomatoes). The number of leaves per plant correlated with genetics and increased salinity, with a maximum of 10 leaves (tomatoes) and a minimum of 4 leaves (chili peppers). This research highlights the importance of managing water quality and selecting suitable crops for sustainable food production in saline-prone areas.</p> Muzafaruddin Chachar Rahib Ali Hakro Saeed Ahmed Ghazal Murtaza Pir Syed Awais Naqi Shah Jillani Humaira Baloch Copyright (c) 2023 Muzafaruddin Chachar, Rahib Ali Hakro, Saeed Ahmed, Ghazal Murtaza, Pir Syed Awais Naqi Shah Jillani, Humaira Baloch 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 1 9 23 29 On Farm Performance Evaluation of Abera Sheep Under Abera community-based Breeding program in Hula and Dara Districts, Sidama Regional State, Ethiopia <p>Community-based breeding programs (CBBP) have been viewed as appealing breeding schemes that have significantly contributed to improving the performance of small ruminants in many developing countries. The current study aims to assess the productive and reproductive performance of sheep owned by CBBP households in the Dara and Hula districts of the Sidama region using performance records retained over an eight-year period since 2013. A total of 3552 birth records, 3263 weaning age (90-day) records, 2845 180-day records, and 1786 yearling age (360-day) records were analyzed using the general linear model under Statistical Analysis System (SAS) procedures. The model considered fixed effects like lamb sex, birth type, dam parity, birth year, birth seasons, and breeder cooperatives. Sheep body weight at birth, 90 days, 180 days, and 360 days, as well as pre-weaning daily weight gain and post-weaning daily weight gain, were 3.14±0.01 kg, 15.13±0.06 kg, 20.8±0.05 kg, and 28.89 kg, 135.3±0.5 g, and 63.64 g, respectively. Body weight at birth and at 90 days was significantly influenced by all fixed effects except birth seasons. All considered fixed effects have significantly (p&lt;0.05) affected body growth at 180 days, pre-weaning daily gain, and post-weaning daily weight gain. A mean litter size of 1.19 was recorded in the present study, which was significantly (p&lt;0.05) different across years but not across breeder cooperatives. The results of the current study indicated considerable improvements in the growth traits of sheep since the breeding program was implemented. The consequences of significant fixed effects should be properly incorporated during breeding ram selection, especially at 180 days. The inclusion selection index, along with growth traits under selection and improvements in management, can be an important intervention strategy to improve the prolificacy of sheep. </p> Sunkurta Digesa Copyright (c) 2023 Sunkurta Digesa 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 1 9 30 40 Evaluation of Rhizobial Inoculants for Symbiotic Performance of Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in the Arsi Zone, Southeastern Highlands of Ethiopia <p>This study was initiated to evaluate the effect of locally isolated Rhizobium inoculants on nodulation and yield of faba bean at Arsi Zone, Ethiopia for two consecutive years. Eight treatments comprising six effective isolates of rhizobia, un-inoculated (negative control), and recommended N-fertilized (18kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The result of the experiment indicated that all inoculation treatments increased nodule number, nodule dry weight, and nodule fresh weight, yield, and yield components over the control check in all experimental sites. The result, however, showed the non-significant (p <u>&lt;</u> 0.05) effect of Rhizobium inoculation on 100 seed weight in all Experimental sites as compared to each treatment. Inoculating FB-24 and FB-120 gave the highest mean grain yield (4273.4 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 4192.2 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) respectively. These records were 61 and 58% over the un-inoculated treatment respectively. In all experimental sites, FB-24 and FB-120 inoculation resulted in the highest nodulation and grain yield production as compared to the other treatments. In general, isolates from the Arsi zone showed good performance in all yield and yield parameters Therefore, FB-24 and FB -120 were recommended as candidate isolates for faba bean biofertilizer production in the Arsi Zone of Ethiopia.</p> Amare Tadesse Asrat Mekonen Wondesen Melak Copyright (c) 2023 Amare Tadesse; Asrat Mekonen , Wondesen Melak 2023-11-20 2023-11-20 1 9 41 52 Effect of Pruning Time on Yield and Quality of Apple (Malus domestica) Varieties in Arsi Highlands, Ethiopia <p>An apple tree pruning experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of pruning time on yield and quality of apple fruits at Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center, Southeast Ethiopia, during the cropping seasons of 2019 and 2020, in two sets each year. Eight treatment combinations of two varieties (Ana and Princesa) and four times of pruning (immediately after harvest, when entering dormancy, just before dormancy break, and no pruning (control)) were studied in the warmest and coldest seasons of the production year. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements in three replications. The interaction effect of apple varieties with the time of pruning was statistically significant (<em>P </em>≤ 0.01) in all yield and yield-related attributes: total fruit yield per tree (kg), marketable fruit yield per tree (kg),number of total and marketable fruits per tree, and average fruit weight (g). Similarly, the interaction effect showed non-significant differences (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) on the quality attributes of fruit length, fruit diameter, and total soluble solids (<sup>o</sup>brix), except for fruit PH. From the results obtained, variety by time of pruning combination suggests that pruning applied on apple trees just before dormancy break could be recommended for higher productivity and quality of apple in the Kulumsa area. In general, further research needs to be done in different apple-growing areas, including other domestically adapted and produced varieties, for conclusive recommendations in the country.&nbsp;</p> Wegayehu Tiahun Gizaw Fekadu Gebretensay Demis Fikre Awoke Ali Dasta Tsagaye Nimona Fufa Copyright (c) 2023 Wegayehu Tiahun Gizaw, Fekadu Gebretensay, Demis Fikre, Awoke Ali, Dasta Tsagaye, Nimona Fufa 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 9 53 62