Global Research in Environment and Sustainability https://hspublishing.org/GRES <p><strong><em>Global Research in Environment and Sustainability (GRES)</em></strong> is an open access and peer-reviewed international journal. Environmental sustainability has become an increasingly important topic in today's world as the impacts of climate change and human activities on the planet continue to grow. Research in this area focuses on identifying solutions to mitigate these impacts and promote sustainable practices. From renewable energy and waste reduction to conservation and ecosystem management, environmental sustainability research is critical for the preservation of the natural world and the well-being of future generations. This research is multidisciplinary, involving scientists, policymakers, and the general public in the pursuit of a sustainable future.</p> Headstart Publishing - United Kingdom en-US Global Research in Environment and Sustainability 3033-3644 Estimation of Runoff Using CN Method and Arc GIS for Irrigation Water Accessibility at Kulumsa Watershed, Arsi Zone of Ethiopia https://hspublishing.org/GRES/article/view/360 <p>Rainfall and runoff are essential components in water resources assessment. Rainfall serves various purposes, including agriculture, hydropower, industries, climate, and the environment, being the primary source of runoff. Rainfall-runoff models estimate surface runoff from watersheds. This study aimed to locate potential water harvesting sites and estimate runoff for irrigation at the Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center. The Curve Number (CN) model predicted runoff based on empirical equations for ungauged Kulumsa watersheds. Rainfall, land use/land cover, and soil data were used for runoff estimation. Landsat 8 imagery from the USGS aided land use/land cover preparation and underwent accuracy assessment. Data on land use and soil types were inputted into a GIS to determine the composite curve number, resulting in a watershed CN of 85, with AMC I dry and AMC III wet seasons having values of 71 and 93, respectively. The Kulumsa watershed has 4.66 km² and receives an average annual rainfall of 821mm. The estimated average annual surface runoff depth was 78.9mm, with a computed volume of approximately 3,673,024m³ generated during the same period. This runoff volume represents 9.61% of the total annual rainfall, signifying the portion that contributed to runoff instead of infiltrating the soil. This study demonstrates the practicality and efficiency of using empirical models integrated with GIS for water resource management. Findings not only highlight potential water harvesting and irrigation but also provide insights for policymakers and water resource managers. Moreover, it presents a scalable framework applicable to diverse areas, contributing to enhanced water management practices and bolstering agricultural sustainability in Ethiopia.</p> Samuel Lindi Mehiret Hone Bakasho Eticha Kebede Nanesa Copyright (c) 2024 Samuel Lindi, Mehiret Hone, Bakasho Eticha, Kebede Nanesa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 2 3 01 15 Evaluating Substitution of Alfalfa Hay for Concentrate Feeds on Nutrient Intake and Growth Performance of Crossbred Dairy Heifers https://hspublishing.org/GRES/article/view/373 <p>An experiment was conducted to evaluate different substitution levels of alfalfa hay for protein concentrates on growth performance, and feed intake of crossbred heifers. Twenty-four crossbred dairy heifers at the age of six months, with an average body weight of 111.1 ± 1.5 kg (mean ± SE) were selected and randomly assigned to four different feeds in a Randomized Complete Block Design for a period of 90 days, six calves per treatment. Maize Stover fed to all experimental animals adlibtum, at 20% refusal, as a basal diet supplemented with 69% wheat bran (WB), 30% noug seed cake (NSC) and 1% salt (T<sub>1</sub>) or substituting 50% NSC with alfalfa hay (ALH) (T<sub>2</sub>), or 75% NSC with ALH (T<sub>3</sub>), or 100% NSC with ALH (T<sub>4</sub>). Diets were formulated for similar crude protein and calories. Feed intake and body weight were measured and recorded daily and every 15 days, respectively. Results of the experiment indicated that the dry matter intake of maize Stover was significantly improved by complete substitution of alfalfa hay by noug seed cake. There was no significant difference in total dry matter intake (P &gt; 0.05) in heifers supplemented with concentrate feeds and different levels of alfalfa hay. There is also no significant difference in daily body weight gain; final body weight and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in heifers fed different levels of concentrate and alfalfa hay. In conclusion substitution of concentrate feed with different levels alfalfa hay resulted in similar body weight gain, and dry matter intake of crossbred calves. Similarly based on partial budget analysis, complete substitution of NSC with alfalfa hay showed reduction of feed cost and increase of net return.</p> Alemayehu Arega Girma Chalchissa Ulfina Galmesa Copyright (c) 2024 Alemayehu Arega, Girma Chalchissa, Ulfina Galmesa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 2 3 16 22 NaCl Acclimation Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Huckleberry (Solanum scabrum Mill.) Plants https://hspublishing.org/GRES/article/view/375 <p>This study was carried out to assess the growth and physiological response of huckleberry (<em>Solanum Scabrum</em> Mill) to salt stress following acclimation with NaCl in Kumba, Cameroon. To achieve this, 1-month old seedlings were transplanted in 10-L pots and subjected to control (non-acclimated, no NaCl), acclimated (5 and 10 mM NaCl) and acclimation/salinity (5 + 75 mM and 10 + 75 mM NaCl). The following parameters were measured, growth (biomass, relative growth rate (RGR), number of leaves, and leaf area), physiological parameters (leaf thickness, and water use efficiency, WUE), and yield (shoot fresh mass). Salt stress significantly reduced the total fresh weight of non-acclimatized plants (T1) by 24 % relative to controls. However, acclimation significantly improved the growth of the plants under salt stress with T4 (acclimation with 5 mM NaCl), having more enhanced growth (52% increase, from control plants). Similarly the dry mass was also more significantly increased in acclimatized than in non-acclimatized plants, with T4 having the highest increase (72% increase, when compared with control plants). The total leaf area under salt stress was more significantly enhanced by acclimation with 5 mM NaCl (51% increase from control), while the RGR was significantly increased by acclimation under saline and non-saline conditions. The WUE was significantly elevated in acclimated plants under salt stress in T4 (46% from controls) than in the other treatments. Leaf thickness was significantly enhanced in both acclimated and non-acclimatized plants, being highest under the T4 treatment. WUE and Leaf thickness were strongly correlated with all growth parameters except number of leaves. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that acclimation with low NaCl, especially 5 mM NaCl imparts salt stress tolerance in huckleberry. Hence acclimation with 5 mM NaCl is recommended for use in the cultivation of huckleberry on saline soils.</p> Dekoum VM Assaha Faison Blanche Meilam Copyright (c) 2024 Dekoum VM Assaha, Faison Blanche Meilam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 2 3 23 37 Production and Chemical Assessment of Ready to Eat Snacks Produced from Cassava, Soyabean and Cricket Composite Flour https://hspublishing.org/GRES/article/view/378 <p>Formulated snack was produced from yellow cassava, soybeans and cricket (protein source) composite flour using simultaneous equation and material mass balance method. The formulated snack was statistically compared with their respective means in two proprietary indigenous products sold in the market using proximate composition, vitamins and minerals properties. The formulated snack was found to compete favourably with both proprietary snacks as its proximate composition (protein; 15.50 ± 0.13, carbohydrates; 62.30 ± 1.03, crude fats; 12.36 ± 0.59, crude fibre; 1.83 ± 0.05, ash; 4.78 ± 0.40; moisture; 5.31 ± 0.06).The formulated food complied with the emergency food product (EFP) recommendation for each proximate food component in snacks formulation except in carbohydrate and protein which was 5 % higher and 23 % less than the EFP benchmark for carbohydrate and protein respectively. The mineral composition varied amongst the product. The water soluble and Fat-soluble vitamin in the formulated snack were found to be higher except for B5, making it an excellent source of micronutrient. The studied made remarkable contribution to knowledge as it has developed an efficient new formula with which locally grown food materials can be blend into a potential nutritious low-cost emergency food product. It therefore recommended that substitution of cassava flour, soybean flour and cricket flour using simultaneous equation and material mass balance equation in snacks formulation should be embarked upon by snacks industries as this will help in conserving national foreign exchange and improving the national value of snacks.</p> S. T. Tsegba P. I. Swande A. G. Nguekwagh Copyright (c) 2024 Torkuma, S.T., Swande, P. I., Nguekwagh, A. G. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-16 2024-03-16 2 3 38 51 Technical Evaluation of Low-Head Drip Irrigation System https://hspublishing.org/GRES/article/view/418 <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the low-head drip irrigation system in Bangladesh. The research was conducted at the Department of Irrigation and Water Management's Hydraulic Lab at Bangladesh Agricultural University. The experimental setup consisted of varying the water supply head from 0.91–1.83 m and placing a lateral drip pipe of 15.24 m on horizontal tables. Catch cans were placed beneath the emitter tubes to collect the emitted water, and the water container was placed on a wooden table, whose height was altered to create different supply heads. The variation in water distribution was demonstrated by emission uniformity (EU) and flow variation (FV) along the drip line. This study discusses how the EU and FV values change with varying water head and lateral length, demonstrating that these factors impact computed results. The results show that the EU increased with an increase in supply head, while the FV decreased with an increase in the head. The bucket drip irrigation system was found to have EU values ranging from 33–42% and FV values from 44–51% under the fluctuating head ranging between 0.91–1.83 m, indicating that the method is not only incredibly inefficient but also expensive.</p> Md. A. Wadud Mollah Md. Aktarul Islam Md Shariot-Ullah Rafiqul Islam Md. Mahmudul Hasan Md. Tahmid Hassan Khan Md. Torikul Islam Mahjabin Kabir Copyright (c) 2024 Md. A. Wadud Mollah, Md. Aktarul Islam, Md Shariot-Ullah, Rafiqul Islam, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Md. Tahmid Hassan Khan, Md. Torikul Islam, Mahjabin Kabir http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 2 3 52 58