Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences <p><em><strong>Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences (JRECS)</strong></em> is a peer-reviewed academic journal published on bi-monthly bases that publishes high-quality research in the fields of engineering and computer sciences. The journal provides a platform for researchers, engineers, and scientists from around the world to share their latest research findings, ideas, and innovations.</p> <p>Engineering and computer sciences are two fields that are constantly evolving and pushing the boundaries of what is possible. They are integral to the development of new technologies and innovations that have transformed the way we live and work. Research in these fields seeks to understand the underlying principles that govern complex systems, as well as to develop new tools and techniques for solving complex problems. From artificial intelligence and machine learning to robotics and biotechnology, engineering and computer science research are at the forefront of many cutting-edge fields. As the demand for new technologies and innovative solutions continues to grow, the importance of research in these fields cannot be overstated.</p> Headstart Publishing - United Kingdom en-US Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences A Novel Hadith Authentication Mobile System for Android and iOS Phones with Arabic to English Language Translation <p>This paper endeavors to create a groundbreaking Hadith authentication mobile system providing Arabic to Malay translation for Android and iOS devices. The background highlights the importance of Hadith in Islamic tradition and the challenges Malay-speaking Muslims face in accessing authentic Hadith resources. The problem statement underscores the language barrier, authenticity concerns, and the lack of comprehensive mobile solutions. The paper's objectives encompass developing the mobile system, implementing authentication criteria, offering user-friendly features, and enhancing access to authentic Hadith sources. The paper's significance lies in providing access to authentic Hadith, promoting authentication, and empowering the Malay-speaking Muslim community. The scope includes essential app features and authentication algorithms, while limitations pertain to language support, authentication variability, resource constraints, translation nuances, and continuous updates. This paper aspires to bridge the gap in Hadith accessibility and contribute to a deeper understanding of Islamic tradition among Malay-speaking Muslims. This paper explores the issue of Hadith authentication and scrutiny, focusing on critical scholars' impressions and the standard used by Hadith compilers. The system uses a client-server architecture and combines web and mobile technologies for administrative and public access. The web interface uses Springboot for Java, while the mobile interface uses React Native for cross-platform applications. The system communicates through rest services and is validated using statistical analysis. The paper also translates authentic Hadith from Arabic to Malay language.</p> Oyedeji Clement Kolade Fadele Ayotunde Alaba Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 5 01 16 Coherent High-Speed Signal Transmission in Passive Optical Networks <p>A comparative study of digital M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM) and QPSK modulation formats for high-speed transmission is presented. Based on VPI optical simulation software. This paper builds a high-bit rate dual polarization (DP) QPSK and&nbsp;&nbsp; 16-QAM modulation formats coherent optical transmission system for Passive Optical Networks (PON). Higher-order modulation formats could be used to provide huge data capacity, extended coverage, and long-reach connections. Channel impairments are mitigated by using digital signal processing (DSP) for dispersion compensation, carrier frequency recovery, and carrier phase estimation. The performance of our system is analysed on Bit Error Rate (BER=1e<sup>-9</sup>), the threshold for a communication system. For a 32-Splitter PON configuration operating with 16-QAM modulation format, a data rate of 80 Gb/s per ONU is achieved after 24km using standard single mode fibre (SSMF). The results indicate that the proposed schemes are a promising solution for coherent high-speed transmission in PONs</p> Henry C. Cherutoi David W. Waswa Dismas Choge Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 5 17 24 Kernel Density Estimation For Kapur Entropy <p>Information theoretic measures play a very important role in training the learning systems. Many non-parametric entropy estimators have been proposed by the researchers that have applications in the adaption systems. In this work, an entropy estimator using Kapur entropy of order alpha and type beta has been proposed and discussed with the help of theorems and properties. From the results, it is shown that the proposed entropy measure is consistent, minimum, and smooth for the pdf underlying given conditions. The proposed results are theoretical and validated with the help of theorems and properties.</p> Leena Chawla Vijay Kumar Arti Saxena Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 5 25 34 Revolutionizing Education: Harnessing Machine Learning and Deep Learning for Digital Examination Transformation <p>The present study underscores the critical role of state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) technologies in reshaping the traditional educational system, particularly in the context of digital examinations. Nevertheless, this transformation introduces significant challenges that require attention to ensure its success. One prominent challenge pertains to the development of ethical and impartial assessment algorithms. With the integration of ML and DL methods into digital examinations, concerns related to assessment bias and fairness have surfaced, necessitating research to design algorithms capable of delivering unbiased evaluations for students from diverse backgrounds. Additionally, there is a pressing need to delve into the ethical implications of using artificial intelligence in educational assessment. Furthermore, substantial concerns revolve around data security and privacy. The digital examination process entails the collection and secure storage of sensitive student data, raising worries about potential data security breaches and violations of privacy. To mitigate these risks, the proposed system aims to implement robust fairness-aware assessment algorithms while also incorporating advanced encryption and privacy-preserving techniques. This comprehensive approach is geared toward safeguarding student data, preventing academic dishonesty and data breaches, and ensuring compliance with data protection regulations, all with the aim of providing equitable assessments and maintaining data privacy in the context of digital examinations enhanced by ML and DL technologies.</p> Asadi Srinivasulu Shilpi Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 5 35 46 Evaluation of Tree Species Composition and Density in Bisaula Forest Reserve Taraba State, Nigeria <p>This study investigated tree species composition and density in Bisaula Forest Reserve in Taraba State, Nigeria. In recent decades, there has been increased in population from the communities living adjacent Bisaula Forest Reserve who rely so much on the forest resources for their livelihoods. As a result, the forest has been under pressure for decades and before any forest management plan can be suggested, it is proper to investigate the status. Twenty-hectare plots were laid across the forest, each hectare plot was re-demarcated into four plots with equal sizes of 50m x 50m out of which one was selected by simple random sampling technique. A total of twenty sample plots covering land area of 50,000m<sup>2</sup> (5ha) was used for the study. The results revealed that a total of 48 different tree species belonging to 16 families were present. The average number of trees per hectare, basal area of trees per hectare and volume of trees per hectare were 99 trees, 0.9524m<sup>2</sup> and 19.354m<sup>3</sup> respectively. Findings from the factors investigated in measuring the status of the forest revealed that the forest is under stocked. The forest therefore needs to be reforested by planting of fast-growing tree species, and cutting of trees in the forest should be regulated.</p> Abel A. Maiguru Joseph J. Akpan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Research in Engineering and Computer Sciences 2023-11-22 2023-11-22 1 5 47 53